How to Conduct Market Research? Guide, Types

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    Before beginning any venture, business, or study, one of the primary aspects to consider is researching. Each business has its target customers. Knowing your customers, habits, and expectations is difficult without thorough market research. This article will help you comprehend the fundamentals of effective market research.

    market research methods

    What is market research?

    Market research permits a business to assess the effectiveness of a service or product by gathering data about the preferences and needs of potential clients. It is a crucial element of a profitable marketing strategy and essential to ensuring the company’s current and relevant offerings.

    Types of market research

    Primary market research

    Primary research is the kind of research you conduct on your own. It is the act of accessing a source directly to collect original data. Researchers use primary research methods to uncover relevant first-hand information about the problem or issue. The research results conducted by primary researchers are either exploratory (when there’s no clear problem-solving solution) or conclusive (solves problems based on exploratory research) data. Different kinds of market research that are primary are like this.

    • Focus group discussions (FGDs)    
    • Interviews: face-to-face or telephone
    • Tests 
    • Surveys
    • Observations

    Secondary market research

    Secondary research is analyzing and combining the results of previous research analyses and papers. In this scenario, researchers use research reports from another researcher as their primary source of information instead of conducting the research independently. Different kinds of secondary research can be described as follows.

    • Internal research uncovers information within your company. Internal data includes database, website, user-generated content, as well as previous research results and results of campaigns.
    • External Research helps fill the gap in knowledge by providing information from libraries that are open to the public newspapers, newspapers, government agencies, competitive analysis, and journals.

    Qualitative market research

    Qualitative research is focused on the “why” rather than the ‘what’ aspect of any action, behavior, or event. It analyzes and collects non-numerical secondary and primary data to develop innovative research concepts or provide detailed insights into an issue. Qualitative research is based on interviews, observations, surveys, and FGDs to gather and analyze the data. The most commonly used methods of qualitative research are the following.

    • Ethnography  
    •  Action research  
    •  Narrative research  
    •  Grounded theory
    process of market research

    Quantitative research

    Quantitative research analyses numerical data to identify patterns, draw predictions, and generalize results. Researchers employ quantitative methods to identify the historical benchmarks they need to study. Quantitative methods include surveys, interviews, and research.

    Market researchers employ both techniques that are qualitative and quantitative to gain insights from the data and to make choices. Businesses employ these methods to conduct various types of research in marketing.

    • Buyer persona  
    •  Market segmentation research  
    •  Competitive analysis  
    •  Pricing research  
    •  Brand awareness  
    •  Demand estimation analysis  
    •  Sales forecasting  
    •  Mystery shopping

    Why market research is important

    If you are unsure about why market research is crucial, read on to understand why it should be on your list when you are beginning an online business.

    To Know Your Customers

    Before you start any business, it is essential to make sure there are buyers to market your product. Market research allows you to understand your target audience and their requirements. For example, if you find low demand for the goods or services you sell, You should review your business plan and move the business in the right direction. If you also observe a high level of customer demand for your goods and services, you’ll be able to make better decisions about ways to boost sales.

    To Understand How to Sell

    Learning how to market your product to the right audience is a top priority for any new venture. This is crucial because consumers change and develop over time. With a greater understanding of your target market, it is possible to determine who to target and what to reach them.

    For instance, if you know that your primary consumers are homemakers, then you should concentrate on the markets on the platforms they typically use on the internet, like cooking videos. If you conduct thorough market research, you will better understand the most effective platforms to market to your clients. Understanding your customer’s shopping habits can be extremely beneficial to ensure your business’s success.

    To Identify Your Competition

    It is essential to be aware of your competitors prior to beginning an online e-commerce company. If you’re aware of your direct and indirect competitors and their business model and their business model, you can address problems that could threaten your business. Additionally, you can stay ahead of your competition by taking a proactive approach to marketing your product to the public.

    Research on the market online can always give you an advantage. Knowing your competitors allows you to plan the right business strategies to keep your company at the forefront of attention. Customers’ loyalty is always changing; therefore, if you don’t know your competitors, you may look like a small fish in the water pond.

    To Lower Business Risks

    According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, approximately half of businesses fail to last for 5 years. If you’d like to ensure that your company succeeds for longer, you must simplify your sales and customers. To do this, research on market trends is necessary!

    To limit the risks associated with the business to minimize business-related risks, meeting the demands of the target audience is essential, as is conducting regular research on the market. Is it your best way to stay on top of these needs? If you plan to change or update your product, it is best to test it out on a smaller portion of your audience before making the leap to the fullest extent.

    How to do a market research

    1. Create your buyer’s persona.

    market research
    market research questions

    Before diving into how your industry’s customers make a purchasing decision, you need to know who they are.

    This is the time when your buyer personas can be useful. Personas of buyers, often called marketing personas, are broad fictional representations that represent your dream customer.

    Utilize a no-cost tool to build a buyer’s persona that your entire business could use to promote and sell products and services more effectively.

    They can help you understand your target audience, simplify your communication, and help you formulate your strategy. The most important characteristics to be looking to include in your buyer persona include:

    • Age
    • Gender
    • Location
    • Job titles
    • Family size
    • Income
    • Major challenges

    2. Examine the competition

    Researching your competitors is the most effective method to know your market. Knowing others in the same line of work will help you formulate an effective marketing strategy and outsmart the competition. A company’s marketing strategy includes four elements:

    1. Product How do you know what your competitor selling? What are the advantages of your product? What can you do to improve it?
    2. Cost: At what price do they sell their product? Are customers willing to pay this much? Do you have to be more expensive for a high-end item or charge less for the same item?
    3. Place: How are your competitors able to reach their customers? Does this channel work? Can you think of another way to connect with them?
    4. Promotion: How are your competitors promoting their products? What are they spending their funds on marketing effectively, and what are they doing with it?

    3. Gather Insights and Determine Action Items

    market research tools

    After you’ve sorted out your data, you can analyze it to discover useful insight. Although some of the information is qualitative and not quantitative, you will be able to identify patterns in the responses that make it easily quantifiable. For example, noticing that 15 of 20 participants said they felt overwhelmed when trying to put together their product.

    After you’ve reviewed your data and projected the emerging trends with visualizations of data, outline your action items.

    In the event that nearly all customers of your targeted demographic were being overwhelmed while making your product, the action items could consist of:

    Making various versions of assembly instructions for testing with other groups, different diagrams, and the instructional language

    Studying best practices for instruction manuals

    4. Storytelling

    It’s now a matter of structuring the information the market study has revealed into an immediate, thorough, and fascinating format. Keeping the attention of key people who are involved (for instance, department heads or executives who haven’t been following the process of preparing the market research but have an interest in findings) isn’t a simple issue. This is why one option is to make the results into a narrative and construct a narrative.

    5. Use tools that can automate and make easy acquisition, communication, and sharing procedures.

    In any case, even in marketing research, information is the single most important resource. To enhance its quality and efficiency of it and make it available for subsequent marketing processes (customer communications as well as lead generation as well as the nurturing of leads) in turn, it is essential to protect the confidentiality and integrity of documents in which the data is embedded within the research findings – is recorded. 

    Document management procedures allow you to use information from diverse sources and return the information in an output that can be used for pagination and communication. This is how data is also brought into play in making useful content, which can be utilized as a part of a strategy to improve customer experience.


    Market research helps companies assess their product’s demand and potential and determine how it will be utilized in real-world situations. Market research is conducted using primary or secondary data, giving a unique insight into the product or service offered by a company. Market research is an important element of a company’s research and development (R&D) stage and essential to its growth and success.

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